Farah Updater Nation |BEST|
Dr. Farah Bader is a Health Program Specialist for the NIS cluster. Before joining the BRAIN Initiative, she received her Ph.D. in Neuroscience from George Mason University, an MPH from Johns Hopkins University, and B.S. in Neuroscience and Behavioral Biology from Emory University. Her dissertation work employed both behavioral measures and simultaneous fMRI-EEG to explore the neural regions and electrophysiological signatures associated with temporal metacognition, time learning, and improvements in time estimation. She has additional research interests in how we detect and compensate for errors in perceiving time as we learn and how to assess the extent of human time awareness. Prior to obtaining her Ph.D., she worked as an analyst at Fogarty International Center/NIH in their extramural Division of International Training & Research. She has also been an ORISE research fellow at the US Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense in neurotoxicology, and a pre-IRTA in NINDS' intramural program in neurophysiology and neuropharmacology. Farah enjoys globe-trotting, reading, writing poetry, and pondering the mysteries of the mind and the universe.
farah updater nation
Mpox (Monkeypox) is a zoonotic orthopoxvirus that incidentally causes disease in humans similar to smallpox, although with notably lower mortality. This virus is clinically relevant because it is endemic to western and central Africa, with outbreaks in the Western Hemisphere related to the exotic pet trade and international travel. Coincident immunity to the mpox virus was previously achieved with vaccinia vaccination; however, eradicating smallpox and subsequent lack of vaccination efforts paved the way for monkeypox to gain clinical relevance. This activity reviews the evaluation and management of monkeypox infections in humans and highlights the role of the interprofessional team in caring for patients with this condition and minimizing disease outbreaks.
Coincident immunity to the mpox virus was previously achieved with vaccinia vaccination; however, eradicating smallpox and subsequent lack of vaccination efforts paved the way for mpox to gain clinical relevance. Furthermore, because most cases of mpox occur in rural Africa, suspected underreporting may translate to an underestimation of the potential threat of this pathogen.
Precise prevalence and incidence are difficult to establish, given suspected shortcomings in disease reporting and confirmation. However, both metrics have increased since the discontinuation of routine smallpox vaccination. Demonstrated risk factors for mpox infection are living in heavily forested and rural areas of central and western Africa, handling and preparing bushmeat, caregiving to someone infected with the mpox virus, and not being vaccinated against smallpox. Male gender has also been correlated with infection risk. However, this may be confounded by the cultural norm that men frequently hunt and contact wild animals.
The CDC established case definition criteria for human mpox during the 2003 outbreak in the United States. However, the same criteria are not necessarily as valuable in endemic areas. The specificity of the epidemiological criteria decreases as the potential exposure of the population to infected mammals or humans increases. In addition, the specificity of the clinical criteria decreases as the prevalence of similar illnesses increases, as is the case with chickenpox, given the lack of routine varicella-zoster vaccination in Africa. Although clinical and epidemiologic criteria remain under review and may differ by situation and geographic location, confirmation of human mpox infection requires laboratory evidence.
Mpox infection can be confirmed via isolation in viral culture or by PCR for mpox virus DNA from a patient specimen. Alternatively, tests indicating the presence of Orthopoxvirus in a patient specimen, barring patient exposure to another of the same genus, can be sufficiently diagnostic, such as visualization on electron microscopy, immunohistochemical staining for orthopoxvirus antigens, serum studies for anti-orthopoxvirus IgM (indicating recent exposure) and IgG (indicating prior exposure or vaccination).
The oral DNA polymerase inhibitor brincidofovir, oral intracellular viral release inhibitor tecovirimat, and intravenous vaccinia immune globulin have unknown efficacy against the mpox virus. Dual therapy with tecovirimat and brincidofovir can be trialed in severe cases. Tecovirimat inhibits viral envelope protein VP37, thus blocking viral maturation as well as the release of the virus from infected cells. Brincidofovir is approved for the treatment of smallpox in the US. Normal saline and probenecid should be given concurrently with cidofovir. Vaccinia Immune Globulin (VIG) is licensed by the FDA to treat complications of vaccinia vaccination. The effectiveness of VIG against smallpox and mpox is uncertain, and VIG has not been trialed in humans for smallpox or mpox.
Identifying the potential benefits and drawbacks of preventative mpox vaccination in endemic communities requires more thorough data collection and feasibility analysis. Access to medical care, testing capabilities, and infrastructure limits the ability to make informed decisions about best addressing this neglected tropical disease.
The spread of infectious diseases requires a susceptible population and opportunities for transmission. Individual and herd immunity to mpox, previously achieved through widespread vaccinia vaccination, has declined since the 1980s, increasing human susceptibility to outbreaks. [Level 3] In addition, interim sociopolitical and ecological changes in endemic regions likely increased human exposure to animal reservoirs. [Level 5]
Farahany is a frequent commentator for national media and radio shows and a regular keynote speaker. She presents her work to diverse academic, legal, corporate, and public audiences including at TED, the World Economic Forum, Aspen Ideas Festival, Judicial Conferences for US Court of Appeals, scientific venue including the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the Society for Neuroscience, the National Academies of Science, Engineering and Medicine, the American Society for Political and Legal Philosophy, and by testifying before Congress.
In 2010, Professor Farahany was appointed by President Obama to the Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues and served until 2017. She is an appointed member of the National Advisory Council for the National Institute for Neurological Disease and Stroke, an elected member of the American Law Institute and Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, past President of the International Neuroethics Society, an ELSI (ethical, legal, and social implications) advisor to the NIH Brain Initiative and to the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, an appointed member of both the Forum on Neuroscience and Nervous System Disorders and the Standing Committee on Biotechnology Capabilities and National Security Needs for the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, and a member of the Global Future Council on Frontier Risks and Expert Network for the World Economic Forum. She served as Reporter for the Study Committee and later Drafting Committee on updating the Uniform Determination of Death Committee for the Uniform Law Commission. In 2022, she was appointed by Governor Roy Cooper to the NC Delegation for the Uniform Law Commission, and currently serves in that capacity. Farahany is a co-editor-in-chief and co-founder of the Journal of Law and the Biosciences and on the Board of Advisors for Scientific American. She also serves on scientific and ethics advisory boards for corporations.
Farah is a visual artist who graduated with a master's degree in Arts in Education from Harvard University. Her work can best be described as stick figure art created by hand-sewing techniques and textile application. Her art-making practice centers on oppression, and she creates all of her artwork for the sole purpose of donation to nonprofit spaces so that her art pieces may exist as a tool to educate and serve the community. Farah's heart is filled with so much gratitude for the Harvardwood Heroes grant, as she will be using it to purchase sewing materials and art supplies to create a visual art piece that reflects on the pain and suffering of women in India who are the victims of acid attacks.
Every year, thousands of firefighters race up hundreds of stairs in full firefighter gear weighing over 40 pounds during American Lung Association Fight For Air Climbs in more than 40 cities nationwide.
But, until then, Farah still has one final event. He's the favorite to win the 5,000-meter race Saturday. And if he does, it may give Brits a few moments longer to bask in the glow of an unlikely British national hero.
In 1991, Farah left the Union and co-founded the Western Journalism Center. He writes a weekly print column for The Jerusalem Post which is nationally syndicated through Creators Syndicate.
To date, artnaturals has not responded to multiple FDA attempts to discuss the contaminated hand sanitizers, including identification of the manufacturer, possible recalls, and the scope of the contamination. Therefore, as of October 4, FDA is urging consumers not to use any artnaturals hand sanitizers.
Durisan tested its hand sanitizer and found microbial contamination including high levels of Burkholderia cepacia complex and Ralstonia pickettii, which can lead to serious infections, including infection of the skin, soft tissues, lungs or bloodstream. Individuals with compromised immune systems are at increased risk. Infection can occur with use of the contaminated hand sanitizer by consumers or by health care professionals who may also transmit the contaminating bacteria to patients. Use of this contaminated hand sanitizer by health care professionals who tend to an at-risk patient, such as one with cystic fibrosis, could lead to adverse events ranging from a localized infection to lung or bloodstream infections, which could require patient hospitalization or extend an existing hospitalization.